His work on nuclear fallout was a major contribution to the agreement of the Partial Test Ban Treaty. A signatory of the Russell--Einstein Manifesto, he was secretary general of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs from its founding until 1973. In conjunction with the Pugwash Conferences, he received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1995 for their efforts towards nuclear disarmament.This is a lecture given by Prof Sir Joseph Rotblat at Taplow Court in 1997. The title is "The Elimination of War a Necessity for Humankind." Joseph Rotblat, Nobel Peace Prize recipient, speaks about humankind and science and how we have an obligation to expend efforts to end the threat of nuclear destruction of the world and to seek peace. The only Manhattan Project scientist to resign on moral grounds, Rotblat became an ardent voice for an end to nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction. He said elimination of nuclear weapons was his short-term goal, and his long-term goal was the elimination of war. He emphasized the social responsibility of scientists, and urged young scientists to spend at least 10% of their time thinking about issues other than their chosen field. His vision is to have a world without war. It is up to each of us to make our own contributions towards achieving peace within our personal lives, within our villages, between countries.